Masculinité, Famille et Foi (MFF)
- Published by: The Learning Collaborative to Advance Normative Change
Tearfund, Populations Services International (PSI), Association de Santé Familiale (ASF), Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University (IRH)
The Masculinité, Famille et Foi (MFF) intervention (2017-2018) is part of the USAID-funded Passages Project, which aims to transform the underlying social norms that impede youth from accessing family planning (FP) services. MFF works with in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo with Protestant faith communities to promote positive masculinities and gender equality among first-time parents (FTP) and newly married couples (NMC) (18-35 years old), and in doing so reduce gender-based and intimate partner violence (GBV/IPV) and promote FP use. MFF is a scale up of the Transforming Masculinities intervention conducted in Eastern Congo, with the added focus on FP.
Social norms of interest
FP use, GBV/IPV, gender equity and roles, masculinity
Behavioural outcomes of interest
FP use, IPV experience/perpetration, male involvement in childcare and household work
Faith leader workshops, gender champion training and support activities with congregation members, community dialogue sessions with couples, community mobilisation and group discussions.
Social norms measurement
The evaluation of MFF consists of an experimental, two-group, pretest/post-test design within 17 Protestant congregations randomly assigned to a comparison or intervention group (eight intervention and nine comparison sites). Formative work was conducted using the Passages Social Norms Exploration Tool (SNET), consisting of a series of participatory exercises to identify relevant social norms and reference groups. Baseline and endline surveys with social norms items were conducted. Social norms scales were validated through factor analysis. A survey assessing diffusion of behaviours and norms was conducted in addition to qualitative in-depth interviews and ethnographic methods for additional context.
Key findings to date
From the baseline, the large majority of survey respondents perceived that it was not typical behaviour in their congregation for husbands to share in the household work responsibilities with their wives. However, husbands contributing to household work was widely seen as approved behaviour with most respondents perceiving that those whose opinions were important to them (e.g. faith leaders, partner, friends, family members) believed that it was appropriate for a husband to share in the household work responsibilities. The majority of survey respondents also perceived that it was not typical behaviour in their congregation for husbands to share in childcare responsibilities. Similar to household work, however, large majorities of respondents perceived that those whose opinions were important to them believed that it was appropriate for a husband to contribute to childcare responsibilities. About one-quarter of male and female survey respondents perceived that it was typical behaviour in their congregation for husbands to perpetrate IPV on their wives. According to women respondents, their partner, mothers/in-law and faith leaders were the most common reference groups for IPV norms. For men it was faith leaders, mothers/in-law and fathers/in-law. Less than 10% of male and female survey respondents reported that IPV was seen as appropriate behaviour among their reference groups. About one-fifth of male and female survey respondents perceived that it was typical behaviour in their congregation for couples to use modern FP. According to female respondents, their partner, mothers/in-law and/or faith leaders were the most common reference groups for IPV norms. For men it was faith leaders, their partner and/or mothers/in-law. Over two-thirds of male and female survey respondents reported that use of modern FP was seen as appropriate behaviour among their reference groups. Social norms appeared more supportive of FP use among FTP compared to NMC. Endline findings coming soon.